Pheochromocytoma: A Rare Cause of Secondary Hypertension
Introduction: Pheochromocytoma is a rare tumor, originating from the chromaffin tissue. Its frequency is approximately 1/100,000. The clinical manifestation is due to catecholamine excess, which includes high blood pressure, palpitation, headache, sweating, nausea, vomiting, trembling, weakness, irritation, abdominal and chest pain, dyspnea, red warm face, constipation, polyuria, and polydipsia.
Case Report: We present a case of 53 years old male, hospitalized for hypertensive crisis following the manipulation of left sided frozen shoulder. He had labile blood pressure ranging from 220/120 systolic- 90/60 diastolic, profuse sweating and tachycardia. Findings of Contrast enhanced CT of abdomen was consistent with right adrenal pheochromocytoma and 24 hours urinary VMA was 17 mg /24 hr (Normal <13.6 mg /24hr). After the clinical, paraclinical investigations and radiological tests, it was proved to be a pheochromocytoma. The surgical intervention was planned. But due to unavailability of required antihypertensive drugs in Nepal (alpha-blockers like phentolamine and phenoxybenzamine), surgeons were reluctant to operate, although blood pressure was well controlled with use of sodium nitroprusside during hypertensive crisis and prazosin, a selective alpha blocker as maintainance therapy. The use of prazosin to control hypertension secondary to pheochromocytoma is limited to case report and case series.
Conclusion: Although rare, pheochromocytoma is a treatable surgical cause of secondary hypertension.