Reaven GM. Banting lecture 1988. Role of insulin resistance in human disease. Diabetes. 1988;37(12):1595-607. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2337/diab.37.12.1595
Ryl A, Rotter I, Slojewski M, Jedrzychowska A, Marcinowska Z, Grabowska M, et al. Can metabolic disorders in aging men contribute to prostatic hyperplasia eligible for transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP)? Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2015;12(3):3327-42. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120303327
Zhang X, Zeng X, Liu Y, Dong L, Zhao X, Qu X. Impact of metabolic syndrome on benign prostatic hyperplasia in elderly Chinese men. Urol Int. 2014;93(2):214-9. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1159/000357760
Nandy PR, Saha S. Association between components of metabolic syndrome and prostatic enlargement: An Indian perspective. Med J Armed Forces India. 2016;72(4):350-5. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mjafi.2016.07.005
Ryl A, Rotter I, Miazgowski T, Slojewski M, Dolegowska B, Lubkowska A, et al. Metabolic syndrome and benign prostatic hyperplasia: association or coincidence? Diabetol Metab Syndr. 2015;7:94. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13098-015-0089-1
Hammarsten J, Hogstedt B, Holthuis N, Mellstrom D. Components of the metabolic syndrome-risk factors for the development of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 1998;1(3):157-62. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.pcan.4500221
Pan JG, Jiang C, Luo R, Zhou X. Association of metabolic syndrome and benign prostatic hyperplasia in Chinese patients of different age decades. Urol Int. 2014;93(1):10-6. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1159/000354026
DiBello JR, Ioannou C, Rees J, Challacombe B, Maskell J, Choudhury N, et al. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components among men with and without clinical benign prostatic hyperplasia: a large, cross-sectional, UK epidemiological study. BJU Int. 2016;117(5):801-8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/bju.13334
Gacci M, Sebastianelli A, Salvi M, De Nunzio C, Vignozzi L, Corona G, et al. Benign prostatic enlargement can be influenced by metabolic profile: results of a multicenter prospective study. BMC Urol. 2017;17(1):22. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12894-017-0211-9
Basawaraj N G ADT, Ashok kumar, Srinath MG. Can sonographic prostate volume predicts prostate specific antigen(PSA)levels inblood among non prostatic carcinoma patients? International Journal of Biological & Medical Research. 2012;3(3):1895-8.
Lim JU, Lee JH, Kim JS, Hwang YI, Kim TH, Lim SY, et al. Comparison of World Health Organization and Asia-Pacific body mass index classifications in COPD patients. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2017;12:2465-75. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2147/COPD.S141295
Berges R, Oelke M. Age-stratified normal values for prostate volume, PSA, maximum urinary flow rate, IPSS, and other LUTS/BPH indicators in the German male community-dwelling population aged 50 years or older. World J Urol. 2011;29(2):171-8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00345-010-0638-z
Berry SJ, Coffey DS, Walsh PC, Ewing LL. The development of human benign prostatic hyperplasia with age. J Urol. 1984;132(3):474-9.
Park YW, Min SK, Lee JH. Relationship between Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms/Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Men. World J Mens Health. 2012;30(3):183-8. doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2013.03.047
Zou C, Gong D, Fang N, Fan Y. Meta-analysis of metabolic syndrome and benign prostatic hyperplasia in Chinese patients. World J Urol. 2016;34(2):281-9.
Zhao S, Chen C, Chen Z, Xia M, Tang J, Shao S, et al. Relationship between Metabolic Syndrome and Predictors for Clinical Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Progression and International Prostate Symptom Score in Patients with Moderate to Severe Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms. Urol J. 2016;13(3):2717-26. DOI: https://doi.org/10.22037/uj.v13i3.3225
Yin Z, Yang JR, Rao JM, Song W, Zhou KQ. Association between benign prostatic hyperplasia, body mass index, and metabolic syndrome in Chinese men. Asian J Androl. 2015;17(5):826-30. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4103/1008-682X.148081
Wang JY, Fu YY, Kang DY. The Association Between Metabolic Syndrome and Characteristics of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2016;95(19):e3243. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000003243
- Abstract viewed - 1411 times
- PDF downloaded - 506 times
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.It permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
© 2018; Raj Kumar Chhetri, Suman Baral, Neeraj Thapa.
How to Cite
Metabolic Syndrome and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
A Nepalese Perspective
Vol 6 No 2 (2018)
Submitted: Jan 26, 2018
Accepted: Jun 24, 2018
Published: Jul 18, 2018
Section: Original Research Article
Introduction: Metabolic syndrome is defined as the presence of at least 3 of the following parameters: (1) waist circumference ≥ 90 cm, (2) triglycerides > 150 mg/dl or treatment for hypertriglyceridemia, (3) HDL-cholesterol < 40 mg/dl or treatment for reduced HDL-cholesterol, (4) blood pressure ≥ 130/85 mmHg or current use of antihypertensive medications, (5) fasting blood glucose ≥ 110 mg/dl or previous diagnosis of type-2 diabetes mellitus. It is closely associated with many diseases and recent studies have also shown its association with benign prostatic hyperplasia and lower urinary tract symptoms. Our study aimed to investigate association between metabolic syndrome and its components with benign prostatic hyperplasia among patients managed surgically in a tertiary centre in Western Nepal.
Methods: One hundred and four patients above 50 years with benign prostatic hyperplasia managed in the department of Surgery over one year were included in the study.
Results: Twenty-seven patients had metabolic syndrome (25.96%). There was association between metabolic syndrome and mean prostate size and among components of metabolic syndrome, high serum triglyceride and low HDL Cholesterol were found to be associated. There was increase in mean prostate size with increase in number of metabolic syndrome components which was statistically significant.
Conclusion: Metabolic syndrome along with its two components, serum triglyceride and HDL Cholesterol were associated with increase in mean prostate size.