Nasal Parameters and Facial Index in Medical Undergraduates: A Cross Sectional Study
Introduction: Face has priority in identification of an individual. Nose occupying the middle of face is an
important sense organ that helps in respiration. Nose and face can be classified into different types according
to nasal index and facial index. The aim of this study was to analyze nose and face type and find out its
dominance in different sex of Nepalese and Indian population. Methods: This was a quantitative observational
study conducted on 156 medical students using simple sampling method. Data were collected then nasal
index and facial index were calculated. Descriptive statistical data i.e. mean, standard deviation, together
with the independent-samples t-test results for anthropometric variables of nasal and facial parameters in
sex and Nationality (Nepalese and Indian) were analyzed. Results: All the measurement values were more
in males compared to females, but the sexual dimorphism in nasal index (male 76.25 ± 7.75, female 75.70
± 8.05) and facial index (male 85.77 ± 8.1, female 82.97 ± 7.63) is not statistically significant. Chi-square
test revealed significant difference in face type among Nepalese and Indian population. Mesorrhine was
the most common type of nose in both the population. Nepalese had commonly euryprosopic type of face
while Indians had hypereuryprosopic type of face. Conclusion: Sexual dimorphism was not significant in
both nasal and facial parameters while type of face was helpful in differentiation of Nepalese and Indian
Sinnatamby CS. Last’s anatomy: Regional and Applied. 12th ed. Edinburgh Churchill Livingstone, 2011;349:503–12.
Ukoha UU, Egwu OA, Ndukwe GU, Akudu LS, Umeasalugo KE. Anthropometric study of the nose in a student population. Ann Bioanthropol.2016;4(1):8. DOI: 10.4103/2315- 7992.190461.
Jeremic D, Kocic S, Vulovic M, Sazdanovic M, Sazdanovic P, Jovanovic B et al. Anthropometric Study Of The Facial Index In The Population Of Central Serbia. Arch Biol Sci. 2013;65(3):1163- 8. DOI: 10.2298/ABS1303163J
Gray H. Sexual and geographic variation in the skull. In: Standring S. Gray’s Anatomy. The Anatomical basis of clinical practice. 39 ed. London: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier, 2008;488p.
Franciscus RG, Long JC. Variation in human nasal height and breadth. Am J Phys Anthropol. 1991;85(4):419‐27. PMID: 1928315.
Kumari KL, Babu PV, Kumari PK, Nagamani M. A study of cephalic index and facial index in Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India. Int J Res Med Sci. 2015;3(3):656-8.
Martin R, Saller K. Lehrbuch der Anthropologie, 3rd ed. Gustav Fischer Verlag: Stuttgart; 1957: P 11.
Ray SK, Saha K, Kumar A, Banjare S. Anthropometric Study of Nasal Index among the Population of Western Uttar Pradesh Region. Int J Sci Stud. 2016;4(2):65-70. DOI: 10.17354/ ijss/2016/254.
Hegazy AA. Anthropometric study of nasal index of Egyptians. Int J Anat Res. 2014; 2(4):761-7. DOI: 10.16965/ ijar.2014.544
Asharani SK, Hiremarali LT, Rajendra R, Surendra M. Study of Nansal Index Among Students of Tertiary Medical Care Institute in Southern India. Int J Anat Res. 2015;3(4):1675- 9. DOI: 10.16965/ijar.2015.314.
Sparks CZ, Jantz RL. A reassessment of human cranial plasticity: Boas revisited. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2002;99(23):14636–9. PMID: 12374854. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.222389599
Shrestha O, Bhattacharya S, Jha N, Dhungel S, Jha CB, Shrestha S, Shrestha U. Cranio facial anthropometric measurements among Rai and Limbu community of Sunsari District, Nepal. Nepal Med Coll J. 2009;11(3):183-5. PMID: 20334066
Koirala S, Shah S, Khanal L. Nasal index of the Tharu and Mongoloid population of Nepal: A cross sectional study. Russian Open Med J. 2014;3:1-3. DOI: 10.15275/rusomj.2014.0302
Oladipo GS, Eroje MA, Fawehinmi HB. Anthropometric comparison of the nasal indices between the Adoni and Okrika ethnic groups of Rivers state, Nigeria. Int J Med Sci. 2009;1:135–7. Available online http://www.academicjournals.org/ijmms
Wai MM, Thwin SS, Yesmin T, Ahmad A, Adnan AS, Hassan AA, et al. Nasofacial Anthropometric Study among University Students of Three Races in Malaysia. Adv Anat. 2015;1-5. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/780756
Yesmin T, Thwin SS, Afrin Urmi S, Wai MM, Zaini PU, Azwan K. A study of facial index among Malay population. J Anthropol. 2014. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/726974
Kurnia C, Susiana S, Husin W. Facial indices in Chinese ethnic students aged 20-22. J Dent Indones. 2013 Aug 20;19(1):1-4. DOI: https://doi/org/10.14693/jdi.v19i1.121
Shetti VR, Pai SR, Sneha GK, Gupta C, Chethan P. Study of Prosopic (Facial) Index of Indian and Malaysian Students. Int J Morphol. 2011;29(3):1018–21. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0717-95022011000300060.
Ekwere EO, Yohanna UM, Lawal IS. A study of the nasal index of Berom students in Plateau State Polytechnic, Jos. Ann Bioanthropol. 2015;3:70- 2. DOI: 10.4103/2315-7992.174014.
Mohammed I, Mokhtari T, Ijaz S, Ngaski AA, Milanifard M, Hassanzadeh G. Anthropometric study of nasal index in Hausa ethnic population of northwestern Nigeria. J Contemp Med Sci. 2018 Mar 26;4(1). Available online http://www.jocms.org/index.php/jcms/article/view/327
Jovanović J, Jeremić D, Jovanović B, Maja V, Sazdanović P, Maja S, et al. Nasal morphological characteristics of the Serbian population. Arch Biol Sci. 2014;66:227-34. DOI:10.2298/ABS1401227J
Jeyaseelann N, Mohammed I, Chin WL, Liyanage RMP, Kanesh KP, Zainab F. Facial Index Among the Ethnic Races of Malaysian Population - An Anthropometric Study. J Dent Med Sci. 2016;15(12):97-101. DOI: 10.9790/0853-15120897101.
Copyright (c) 2019 Sudikshya KC
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
- The Journal of Lumbini Medical College (JLMC) publishes open access articles under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) License which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- JLMC requires an exclusive licence to publish the article first in its journal in print and online.
- The corresponding author should read and agree to the following statement before submission of the manuscript for publication,
- License agreement
- In submitting an article to Journal of Lumbini Medical College (JLMC) I certify that:
- I am authorized by my co-authors to enter into these arrangements.
- I warrant, on behalf of myself and my co-authors, that:
- the article is original, has not been formally published in any other peer-reviewed journal, is not under consideration by any other journal and does not infringe any existing copyright or any other third party rights;
- I am/we are the sole author(s) of the article and have full authority to enter into this agreement and in granting rights to JLMC are not in breach of any other obligation;
- the article contains nothing that is unlawful, libellous, or which would, if published, constitute a breach of contract or of confidence or of commitment given to secrecy;
- I/we have taken due care to ensure the integrity of the article. To my/our - and currently accepted scientific - knowledge all statements contained in it purporting to be facts are true and any formula or instruction contained in the article will not, if followed accurately, cause any injury, illness or damage to the user.
- I, and all co-authors, agree that the article, if editorially accepted for publication, shall be licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0. If the law requires that the article be published in the public domain, I/we will notify JLMC at the time of submission, and in such cases the article shall be released under the Creative Commons 1.0 Public Domain Dedication waiver. For the avoidance of doubt it is stated that sections 1 and 2 of this license agreement shall apply and prevail regardless of whether the article is published under Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 or the Creative Commons 1.0 Public Domain Dedication waiver.
- I, and all co-authors, agree that, if the article is editorially accepted for publication in JLMC, data included in the article shall be made available under the Creative Commons 1.0 Public Domain Dedication waiver, unless otherwise stated. For the avoidance of doubt it is stated that sections 1, 2, and 3 of this license agreement shall apply and prevail.
Please visit Creative Commons web page for details of the terms.