Risk Factors Associated with Frozen Shoulder among Nepalese Population: A Hospital-based Comparative Study
Introduction: Frozen shoulder is one of the common musculoskeletal disorders characterized by pain and restriction of motion of the shoulder joint. It is also considered a common self-limiting regional skeletal problem. This study aimed to evaluate related risk factors for frozen shoulders. Methods: This was a hospital-based comparative study involving 60 patients with a diagnosed frozen shoulder in the out-patient department as cases and 60 patients hospitalized during the same period with non-shoulder-related complaints as controls. A face-to-face interview was taken. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. Results: A total of 120 consecutive subjects (60 patients with frozen shoulders and 60 controls) were taken. The mean age of cases was 54.7±3.21 years and that of controls was 42.08±2.74 years. Among the frozen shoulder patients, 33.3% had diabetes and 15% had a history of thyroid disorder. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed age, diabetes mellitus, and thyroid dysfunction as independent risk factors for frozen shoulder (p<0.05). The frozen shoulder patients also had a higher prevalence of cardiac diseases and cervical spondylosis than the controls. No significant difference was found in body mass index, cholecystitis, history of surgical intervention, and uric acid level between the frozen shoulder group and the control group. Conclusions: The study findings indicated that diabetes, thyroid disease, and advanced age have been significantly associated with increased frozen shoulders.
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