Complications of Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy and their Management
Experience from a Single Centre
Introduction: Increasing global prevalence of nephrolithiasis has resulted in the development of new minimally invasive techniques and has also led to the resurgence of established methods such as percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). This procedure is now recommended as the first option for the treatment of single large or multiple renal stones and those in the inferior calyx. This study was done to assess the complications of PCNL and their management, in our centre.
Methods: Medical records of 144 patients who underwent PCNL at Lumbini Medical College Teaching Hospital, during the last one year were reviewed. The demographic data, size, tract number and location of the calculi, and intraoperative and postoperative complications were evaluated. The various parameters of the calculi were evaluated. Descriptive analysis with frequencies was done.
Results: Complications occurred in 13 (9.02%) patients. Post operative bleeding occurred in seven (4.8%) patients, out of which one patient developed pseudoaneurysms and the other developed arteriovenous fistula. One patient developed hypovolemic shock immediately after surgery. Frequent blockage of urine, excessive drainage of urine from the drain site, hemothorax and colonic perforation was seen in one patient each. One patient had mortality due to post operative bleeding. Complications increased with the number and size of stones and number and site of the tracts.
Conclusion: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy has low complication rate in experienced hands and complications depend upon stone size, history of open stone surgery, tract number, and tract location.